• Main aim of cohort
    Baby Biome Study aims to understand how interactions between microorganisms, both pathogenic and the colonising microbiota, the immune system, and clinical, social, and behavioural factors during pregnancy and early life influence health throughout life. We hypothesise that the nascent immune system interacts with the first microbiota colonisers, driving immune-mediated disease when this process is disturbed. This work includes exploring the impact of elective caesarean section, and of antibiotics given in pregnancy or labour, on the acquisition of microbiota in a child’s gastrointestinal tract, and their subsequent health.

    Recruited number of:
    3401 children / 3401 mothers / 0 fathers / 0 grand parents / 0 other family members

    Approximate proportion of source population included
    33

    Source population
    Region-based

  • Period of enrollment
    Start: 2016-02-14, End: 2017-11-30

    Enrollment period
    At birth  to

    Enrollment criteria, please specify
    All pregnant women older than 16 years and giving birth at study sites were eligible for the BBS pilot.

    Exclusion criteria, please specify
    There were no gestational age exclusion criteria since pre-term babies are of specific interest.

    Planned age of children at end of follow-up
    Life-long / unrestricted
General information ---------- Child age (years) at assessment ----------
<1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Home addressXXX
School address
Birth outcomes
Birth weightX
Birth lengthX
Gestational age at birthX
Apgar scoreX
Congenital malformationsX
Stillbirth (>= 22 weeks)
Child’s sexX
Head circumference
Biparietal diameter
Child exposures ---------- Child age (years) at assessment ----------
<1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Breast feedingX
DietX
Dietary supplements
Childcare attendance
Active smoking
Passive smokingX
Alcohol consumption
Physical activity
Substance use
Medicine intake
VaccinationsXX
Psychological distress (e.g. bullying)
Air pollution
Access to green spaces
Built environment
Noise
Radiation, electromagnetic fields
Water contamination
PetsX
Farm animal exposure
Biomarkers of exposure
Mercury
Lead
Cadmium
Arsenic
Other metals
Polychlorinated biphenyl esters
Dicloro difenil tricloroetano
Hexachlorobenzene
Brominated flame retardants
Perflouralkyl compounds
Bisphenol A
Other bisphenols
Parabens
Benzophenones
Triclosan
Phthalates
Cotinine
Child development and health ---------- Child age (years) at assessment ----------
<1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Anthropometry
WeightXX
HeightXX
Head circumference
Abdominal circumference
Arm circumference
Wrist circumference
Waist circumference
Clinical examinations
Blood pressure
Carotida intima media thickness
Pulse wave velocity
Cardiac ultrasound
Renal ultrasound
Brain MRI
Other MRI
DEXA‐scan results
Skin folds
Bio impedence
Oscilometry
Spirometry
Skin prick test
Bronchial challenge test
Reversibility test
Dental observations
Mental and neurological development
Cognitive function
School performanceX
Language
ADHD
Autism
Sleep disturbances
Mental health
Respiratory health
AsthmaX
AllergyX
Allergic rhinitisX
EczemaX
Respiratory tract infectionsX
Senses
Vision
HearingXX
Musculo-skeletal health
Back pain
Neck pain
Growing pains
Sexual maturation
Tanner stage
Pubertal development stage
Age at menarche
Age at voice change
2D/4D digit ratio
Nocturnal ejaculation
Acne
Other health outcomes
Cancer
Diabetes
Congenital anomalies
Biomarkers of health
Nephrology (e.g. creatinine, albumin)
Thyroid hormones
Inflammatory markers (e.g. C-reactive protein cytokines)
Immunologic markers (e.g. immunoglobulines)X
Cortisol
Vitamines and micronutrients
Gonadal axis hormones (e.g. testosterone, estradiol)
Metabolism (e.g. cholesterol, LDL, HDL, insulin, triglycerides)
Metabolomics
DNA methylationX
Transcriptomics (mRNA, miRNA)X
Genome-wide association study (GWAS)X
Child biological samples ---------- Child age (years) at sampling ----------
At birth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Whole bloodX
SerumX
Plasma
Buffy coat
Urine
Hair
Teeth
Nails
Saliva
Purified DNA
Purified RNA
Red blood cells
Umbilical cord blood/tissue
Blood smear
Faeces/meconiumXXX
Exhaled breathe condensate
Sputum induction
Placenta
General information
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy <1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Education
Income
Employment status
Job title
Single parenthood
Home address
Work address
Maternal characteristics related to the index pregnancy/child
Age at birth
Ethnicity
Country of birth
Planned pregnancy
Time to pregnancy
Fertility treatment
Prior spontaneous abortion (<22w)
Prior births
Ultrasound measurements
Doppler measurements
Preeclampsia
Gestational diabetes
Gestational hypertension
Gestational duration
Mode of delivery
Prenatal diagnostics
Medical termination of pregnancy
Maternal Exposures ---------- Timing of assessment ----------
Pre-pregnancy First trimester Second trimester Third trimester Post pregnancy
Diet
Dietary supplements
Active smoking
Passive smoking
Alcohol consumption
Physical activity
Substance use
Medicine intake
Coffee drinking
Psychological distress (e.g. life-events, health behaviors, perceived stress)
Occupational exposures
Heavy lifts
Work hours
Air pollution
Access to green spaces
Built environment
Noise
Radiation, electromagnetic fields
Water contamination
Binge drinking
Pets
Farm animal exposure
Biomarkers of exposure
Mercury
Lead
Cadmium
Arsenic
Other metals
Polychlorinated biphenyl esters
Dicloro difenil tricloroetano
Hexachlorobenzene
Brominated flame retardants
Perflouralkyl compounds
Bisphenol A
Other bisphenols
Parabens
Benzophenones
Triclosan
Phthalates
Cotinine
Maternal health ---------- Timing of assessment ----------
Pre-pregnancy First trimester Second trimester Third trimester Post pregnancy
Anthropometry
Weight
Height
Waist circumference
Clinical examinations
Blood pressure
Carotida intima media thickness
Pulse wave velocity
DEXA scans
Bioimpedence
Mental and neurological development
Mental health
Cognitive function (e.g. intelligence quotient)
Respiratory health
Asthma
Allergy
Musculo‐skeletal disease
Back pain
Neck pain
Arthritis
Other health outcomes
Cancer
Diabetes
Cardio‐vascular disease
Family history of chronic disease
Infectious disease
Fever
Autoimmune disease
Urinary symptoms
Sexual problems
Sleep disturbance
Biomarkers of health
Nephrology (e.g. creatinine, albumin)
Thyroid hormones
Inflammatory markers (e.g. C-reactive protein cytokines)
Immunologic markers (e.g. immunoglobulines)
Cortisol
Vitamines and micronutrients
Gonadal axis hormones (e.g. testosterone, estradiol)
Metabolism (e.g. cholesterol, LDL, HDL, insulin, triglycerides)
Metabolomics
DNA methylation
Transcriptomics (mRNA, miRNA)
Genome-wide association study (GWAS)
Maternal biological samples ---------- Timing of sampling ----------
Pre-pregnancy First trimester Second trimester Third trimester Post pregnancy
Breast milk
Whole blood
Serum
Plasma
Buffy coat
Urine
Hair
Nails
Saliva
Purified DNA
Purified RNA
Red blood cells
Faeces
General information
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy <1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Education
Income
Employment status
Job title
Single parenthood
Home address
Work address
Paternal characteristics related to the index pregnancy/child
Fertility treatment
Age at child's birth
Ethnicity
Country of birth
Paternal exposures ---------- Timing of assessment ----------
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy Post pregnancy
Diet
Dietary supplements
Active smoking
Passive smoking
Alcohol consumption
Physical activity
Substance use
Medicine intake
Coffee drinking
Psychological distress (e.g. life-events, health behaviors, perceived stress)
Occupational exposures
Heavy lifts
Work hours
Air pollution
Access to green spaces
Built environment
Noise
Radiation, electromagnetic fields
Water contamination
Binge drinking
Pets
Farm animal exposure
Biomarkers of exposure
Mercury
Lead
Cadmium
Arsenic
Other metals
Polychlorinated biphenyl esters
Dicloro difenil tricloroetano
Hexachlorobenzene
Brominated flame retardants
Perflouralkyl compounds
Bisphenol A
Other bisphenols
Parabens
Benzophenones
Triclosan
Phthalates
Cotinine
Paternal health ---------- Timing of assessment ----------
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy Post pregnancy
Anthropometry
Weight
Height
Waist circumference
Clinical examinations
Blood pressure
Carotida intima media thickness
Pulse wave velocity
DEXA scans
Bio impedence
Mental and neurological development
Mental health
Cognitive function (e.g. intelligence quotient)
Respiratory health
Asthma
Allergy
Musculo‐skeletal disease
Back pain
Neck pain
Arthritis
Other health outcomes
Cancer
Diabetes
Cardio‐vascular disease
Family history of chronic disease
Infectious disease
Fever
Autoimmune disease
Urinary symptoms
Sexual problems
Sleep disturbance
Biomarkers of health
Nephrology (e.g. creatinine, albumin)
Thyroid hormones
Inflammatory markers (e.g. C-reactive protein cytokines)
Immunologic markers (e.g. immunoglobulines)
Cortisol
Vitamines and micronutrients
Gonadal axis hormones (e.g. testosterone, estradiol)
Metabolism (e.g. cholesterol, LDL, HDL, insulin, triglycerides)
Metabolomics
DNA methylation
Transcriptomics (mRNA, miRNA)
Genome-wide association study (GWAS)
Paternal biological samples ---------- Timing of sampling ----------
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy Post pregnancy
Semen
Whole blood
Serum
Plasma
Buffy coat
Urine
Hair
Nails
Saliva
Purified DNA
Purified RNA
Red blood cells
Faeces
Comments and ideas
The Baby Biome Study pilot was designed to test the feasibility, acceptability and scalability of our approach. The study team is currently developing a funding application to expand the cohort to 40,000 mother-baby pairs to investigate the role of gut microbiota colonisation and the immune system in driving subsequent health and disease.