• Cohort, name
    Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study

    Cohort, abbreviation
    Raine Study

    Cohort, country
    Australia

    Cohort, website
    www.rainestudy.org.au

    Date of filling in this questionnaire:
    2017-11-24

  • Principal investigator(s), name
    Professor Peter Eastwood

    Principal investigator(s), e-mail address
    raineadmin-sph@uwa.edu.au

    Principal investigator(s), institution
    University of Western Australia

    Contact person(s), name
    Manon Dontje

    Contact person(s), e-mail address
    raineadmin-sph@uwa.edu.au

    Contact person(s), institution address
    The University of Western Australia, School of Population and Global Health | 14-16 Parkway Crawley WA 6009

  • Main aim of cohort
    The Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Study: A multi-generational life-course study utilising rich genetic, phenotypic (cardiometabolic, respiratory, immunological, musculoskeletal, psychological, hormonal, reproductive, vision, hearing), behavioural (sleep, activity, diet, risky behaviour), environmental (chemical, spatial, social) and education and work data to improve human health and well-being.

    Recruited number of:
    2868 children / 2900 mothers / 2900 fathers / 0 grand parents / 0 other family members

    Approximate proportion of source population included
    0

    Source population
    Region-based

  • Period of enrollment
    Start: 1989-05-01, End: 1991-11-30

    Enrollment period
    Pregnancy, week 16 to 18

    Enrollment criteria, please specify
    16-20 weeks pregnant, sufficient proficiency in English, attending the public antenatal clinic at King Edward Memorial Hospital or a nearby private practice clinic, expect to deliver at the hospital, and intend to remain in Western Australia

    Planned age of children at end of follow-up
    Life-long / unrestricted
General information ---------- Child age (years) at assessment ----------
<1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Home addressXX
School address
Birth outcomes
Birth weightX
Birth lengthX
Gestational age at birthX
Apgar score
Congenital malformationsX
Stillbirth (>= 22 weeks)
Child’s sexX
Head circumference
Biparietal diameter
Child exposures ---------- Child age (years) at assessment ----------
<1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Breast feedingXXXX
DietXXXXX
Dietary supplements
Childcare attendanceXXXX
Active smokingXX
Passive smokingXXXXXXXXX
Alcohol consumptionXX
Physical activityXXXX
Substance useXX
Medicine intakeXXXXXXXX
VaccinationsXXXXX
Psychological distress (e.g. bullying)
Air pollution
Access to green spaces
Built environment
Noise
Radiation, electromagnetic fields
Water contamination
PetsXXXXXX
Farm animal exposure
Biomarkers of exposure
Mercury
Lead
Cadmium
Arsenic
Other metals
Polychlorinated biphenyl esters
Dicloro difenil tricloroetano
Hexachlorobenzene
Brominated flame retardants
Perflouralkyl compounds
Bisphenol A
Other bisphenols
Parabens
Benzophenones
Triclosan
Phthalates
Cotinine
Child development and health ---------- Child age (years) at assessment ----------
<1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Anthropometry
WeightXXXXXXXXXX
HeightXXXXXXXXXX
Head circumferenceX
Abdominal circumference
Arm circumferenceXXXXXXXX
Wrist circumference
Waist circumferenceXX
Clinical examinations
Blood pressureXXXXXXXXX
Carotida intima media thickness
Pulse wave velocity
Cardiac ultrasound
Renal ultrasound
Brain MRI
Other MRIX
DEXA‐scan results
Skin foldsXXXXX
Bio impedence
Oscilometry
SpirometryXXXX
Skin prick test
Bronchial challenge test
Reversibility test
Dental observations
Mental and neurological development
Cognitive functionXX
School performanceX
LanguageXX
ADHD
Autism
Sleep disturbances
Mental health
Respiratory health
AsthmaXXXXXXXX
AllergyXXXXXXXX
Allergic rhinitis
Eczema
Respiratory tract infections
Senses
VisionXXX
Hearing
Musculo-skeletal health
Back painX
Neck pain
Growing pains
Sexual maturation
Tanner stage
Pubertal development stage
Age at menarche
Age at voice change
2D/4D digit ratio
Nocturnal ejaculation
Acne
Other health outcomes
Cancer
Diabetes
Congenital anomaliesX
Biomarkers of health
Nephrology (e.g. creatinine, albumin)
Thyroid hormones
Inflammatory markers (e.g. C-reactive protein cytokines)XX
Immunologic markers (e.g. immunoglobulines)X
CortisolXX
Vitamines and micronutrientsXXX
Gonadal axis hormones (e.g. testosterone, estradiol)
Metabolism (e.g. cholesterol, LDL, HDL, insulin, triglycerides)XX
Metabolomics
DNA methylation
Transcriptomics (mRNA, miRNA)
Genome-wide association study (GWAS)
Child biological samples ---------- Child age (years) at sampling ----------
At birth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Whole bloodXXXX
SerumXXXX
Plasma
Buffy coat
UrineXX
Hair
TeethX
Nails
Saliva
Purified DNAXX
Purified RNA
Red blood cells
Umbilical cord blood/tissueX
Blood smear
Faeces/meconium
Exhaled breathe condensate
Sputum induction
Placenta
General information
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy <1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
EducationX
IncomeXXXXXXXXX
Employment statusXXXXXXXXX
Job title
Single parenthood
Home address
Work address
Maternal characteristics related to the index pregnancy/child
Age at birthX
EthnicityX
Country of birthX
Planned pregnancyX
Time to pregnancyX
Fertility treatment
Prior spontaneous abortion (<22w)
Prior birthsX
Ultrasound measurementsX
Doppler measurementsX
PreeclampsiaX
Gestational diabetesX
Gestational hypertensionX
Gestational duration
Mode of deliveryX
Prenatal diagnostics
Medical termination of pregnancy
Maternal Exposures ---------- Timing of assessment ----------
Pre-pregnancy First trimester Second trimester Third trimester Post pregnancy
DietX
Dietary supplements
Active smokingX
Passive smoking
Alcohol consumptionX
Physical activityX
Substance useX
Medicine intakeX
Coffee drinkingX
Psychological distress (e.g. life-events, health behaviors, perceived stress)X
Occupational exposures
Heavy lifts
Work hours
Air pollution
Access to green spaces
Built environment
Noise
Radiation, electromagnetic fields
Water contamination
Binge drinking
PetsX
Farm animal exposure
Biomarkers of exposure
Mercury
Lead
Cadmium
Arsenic
Other metals
Polychlorinated biphenyl esters
Dicloro difenil tricloroetano
Hexachlorobenzene
Brominated flame retardants
Perflouralkyl compounds
Bisphenol A
Other bisphenols
Parabens
Benzophenones
Triclosan
PhthalatesX
Cotinine
Maternal health ---------- Timing of assessment ----------
Pre-pregnancy First trimester Second trimester Third trimester Post pregnancy
Anthropometry
WeightX
HeightX
Waist circumference
Clinical examinations
Blood pressure
Carotida intima media thickness
Pulse wave velocity
DEXA scans
Bioimpedence
Mental and neurological development
Mental health
Cognitive function (e.g. intelligence quotient)
Respiratory health
Asthma
Allergy
Musculo‐skeletal disease
Back pain
Neck pain
Arthritis
Other health outcomes
Cancer
DiabetesX
Cardio‐vascular disease
Family history of chronic disease
Infectious disease
Fever
Autoimmune disease
Urinary symptoms
Sexual problems
Sleep disturbance
Biomarkers of health
Nephrology (e.g. creatinine, albumin)
Thyroid hormonesX
Inflammatory markers (e.g. C-reactive protein cytokines)
Immunologic markers (e.g. immunoglobulines)
Cortisol
Vitamines and micronutrientsX
Gonadal axis hormones (e.g. testosterone, estradiol)
Metabolism (e.g. cholesterol, LDL, HDL, insulin, triglycerides)
Metabolomics
DNA methylation
Transcriptomics (mRNA, miRNA)
Genome-wide association study (GWAS)
Maternal biological samples ---------- Timing of sampling ----------
Pre-pregnancy First trimester Second trimester Third trimester Post pregnancy
Breast milk
Whole blood
Serum
Plasma
Buffy coat
Urine
Hair
Nails
Saliva
Purified DNA
Purified RNA
Red blood cells
Faeces
General information
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy <1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
EducationX
IncomeXX
Employment statusXXXXX
Job title
Single parenthood
Home address
Work address
Paternal characteristics related to the index pregnancy/child
Fertility treatment
Age at child's birthX
EthnicityX
Country of birth
Paternal exposures ---------- Timing of assessment ----------
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy Post pregnancy
Diet
Dietary supplements
Active smoking
Passive smoking
Alcohol consumption
Physical activity
Substance use
Medicine intake
Coffee drinking
Psychological distress (e.g. life-events, health behaviors, perceived stress)
Occupational exposures
Heavy lifts
Work hours
Air pollution
Access to green spaces
Built environment
Noise
Radiation, electromagnetic fields
Water contamination
Binge drinking
Pets
Farm animal exposure
Biomarkers of exposure
Mercury
Lead
Cadmium
Arsenic
Other metals
Polychlorinated biphenyl esters
Dicloro difenil tricloroetano
Hexachlorobenzene
Brominated flame retardants
Perflouralkyl compounds
Bisphenol A
Other bisphenols
Parabens
Benzophenones
Triclosan
Phthalates
Cotinine
Paternal health ---------- Timing of assessment ----------
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy Post pregnancy
Anthropometry
WeightX
HeightX
Waist circumference
Clinical examinations
Blood pressure
Carotida intima media thickness
Pulse wave velocity
DEXA scans
Bio impedence
Mental and neurological development
Mental health
Cognitive function (e.g. intelligence quotient)
Respiratory health
Asthma
Allergy
Musculo‐skeletal disease
Back pain
Neck pain
Arthritis
Other health outcomes
Cancer
Diabetes
Cardio‐vascular disease
Family history of chronic disease
Infectious disease
Fever
Autoimmune disease
Urinary symptoms
Sexual problems
Sleep disturbance
Biomarkers of health
Nephrology (e.g. creatinine, albumin)
Thyroid hormones
Inflammatory markers (e.g. C-reactive protein cytokines)
Immunologic markers (e.g. immunoglobulines)
Cortisol
Vitamines and micronutrients
Gonadal axis hormones (e.g. testosterone, estradiol)
Metabolism (e.g. cholesterol, LDL, HDL, insulin, triglycerides)
Metabolomics
DNA methylation
Transcriptomics (mRNA, miRNA)
Genome-wide association study (GWAS)
Paternal biological samples ---------- Timing of sampling ----------
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy Post pregnancy
Semen
Whole blood
Serum
Plasma
Buffy coat
Urine
Hair
Nails
Saliva
Purified DNA
Purified RNA
Red blood cells
Faeces
Comments and ideas
Summary: In 1989 Professor John Newnham and colleagues invited more than 3000 pregnant women to join a National Health and Medical Research Council funded research study at King Edward Memorial Hospital to examine the possible beneficial effects of repeated fetal ultrasound imaging studies. Women were allocated at random into one of two groups – Regular Care or Intensive Care. Those in the Regular Care group had a single ultrasound imaging study at 18 weeks gestation, with further scans only if clinically indicated. The women in the Intensive Care group had ultrasound scans at 18, 24, 28, 34 and 38 weeks gestation. Along with Professor Newnham, a group of prominent investigators (Professor Fiona Stanley, Professor Lou Landau and Professor Con Michael) formed a group to establish these families into a cohort study, focusing on the child, to determine how events during pregnancy and childhood influence health in later life. This was initially supported with funding from the Raine Medical Research Foundation. The original cohort of 2868 children (Generation 2), is one of the largest, most successful prospective cohorts of pregnancy, childhood, adolescence and now adulthood to be carried out anywhere in the world. This cohort has provided environmental, developmental and health information over the past 27 years providing a unique and valuable resource covering a wide range of health areas. Follow-up assessment of the cohort has been conducted at birth, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 14, 17, 18, 20, 22 and 27 years of age by a collaborative team of researchers from The University of Western Australia, Women and Infants Research Foundation, Telethon Kids Institute, Curtin University, Edith Cowan University, the University of Notre Dame, (and now also Murdoch University), the Lyons Eye Institute, and many other national and international collaborators. The original parents (Generation 1) participated in the assessments as well, providing information about their children and about themselves. Generation 1 has recently participated in assessments of sleep, obesity and activity. In addition, the off-spring (Generation 3) of the original cohort (Generation 2) are currently participating in assessments of developmental ability and physical activity.