• Main aim of cohort
    The EU Childhood Obesity Programme allowed, for the first time, a one year multicentre intervention trial on new-born infants, to see whether feeding infant formulae, which differ in their level of milk proteins , can influence the risk of later childhood obesity. The trial took place in five countries with different habitual total protein intakes to increase the range of protein intakes and improving the statistical power to test the 'early protein hypothesis' (i.e. Early protein intake predicts infant growth and later risk of childhood obesity).

    Recruited number of:
    1678 children / 1678 mothers / 1678 fathers / 0 grand parents / 502 other family members

    Approximate proportion of source population included
    0

    Source population
    Other, please describestudy center based (Belgium 2 ,Germany 2, Italy 1, Poland 1, Spain 2 study centers)

  • Period of enrollment
    Start: 2002-10-01, End: 2004-07-31

    Enrollment period
    Later, month 0 to 2

    Enrollment criteria, please specify
    Eligibility: •Ages eligible for study: up to 8 weeks •Genders eligible for study: Both •Accepts healthy volunteers: Yes ; Inclusion Criteria: •Gestational age > 37 weeks •Appropriate for gestational age (above 10th percentile,Lubchenko) •Age of the mother at least 18 years •Singleton pregnancies •Residence in the study area •Maternal command of the language

    Exclusion criteria, please specify
    •Gestational diabetes •Major malformations (of the child) which might interfere with nutrition or growth •Hormonal or metabolic diseases of the mother or the child •drug addiction during pregnancy

    Planned age of children at end of follow-up
    11 yearsLife-long / unrestricted
General information ---------- Child age (years) at assessment ----------
<1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Home address
School address
Birth outcomes
Birth weightX
Birth lengthX
Gestational age at birthX
Apgar score
Congenital malformations
Stillbirth (>= 22 weeks)
Child’s sexX
Head circumferenceX
Biparietal diameter
Child exposures ---------- Child age (years) at assessment ----------
<1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Breast feedingXX
DietXXXXXXXX
Dietary supplementsXXXXXXXXX
Childcare attendance
Active smoking
Passive smoking
Alcohol consumption
Physical activityXXXXXX
Substance use
Medicine intakeXXXXX
Vaccinations
Psychological distress (e.g. bullying)XX
Air pollution
Access to green spaces
Built environment
Noise
Radiation, electromagnetic fields
Water contamination
Pets
Farm animal exposure
Biomarkers of exposure
Mercury
Lead
Cadmium
Arsenic
Other metals
Polychlorinated biphenyl esters
Dicloro difenil tricloroetano
Hexachlorobenzene
Brominated flame retardants
Perflouralkyl compounds
Bisphenol A
Other bisphenols
Parabens
Benzophenones
Triclosan
Phthalates
Cotinine
Child development and health ---------- Child age (years) at assessment ----------
<1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Anthropometry
WeightXXXXXXXXXX
HeightXXXXXXXXXX
Head circumferenceXXXXXXXXXX
Abdominal circumference
Arm circumferenceXXXXXXXXXX
Wrist circumferenceXXXXXXXXXX
Waist circumferenceXXXXXXXXXX
Clinical examinations
Blood pressureXXXXXXX
Carotida intima media thicknessXX
Pulse wave velocity
Cardiac ultrasound
Renal ultrasoundXXX
Brain MRI
Other MRI
DEXA‐scan resultsXX
Skin foldsXXXXXXXXXX
Bio impedenceXXXXX
Oscilometry
Spirometry
Skin prick test
Bronchial challenge test
Reversibility test
Dental observationsX
Mental and neurological development
Cognitive functionXX
School performance
LanguageX
ADHDXX
Autism
Sleep disturbancesXX
Mental healthXXXX
Respiratory health
AsthmaXXX
AllergyXXX
Allergic rhinitisXXX
EczemaXXXXXX
Respiratory tract infections
Senses
Vision
Hearing
Musculo-skeletal health
Back pain
Neck pain
Growing pains
Sexual maturation
Tanner stage
Pubertal development stageX
Age at menarcheX
Age at voice changeX
2D/4D digit ratio
Nocturnal ejaculation
Acne
Other health outcomes
Cancer
Diabetes
Congenital anomalies
Biomarkers of health
Nephrology (e.g. creatinine, albumin)XXXX
Thyroid hormones
Inflammatory markers (e.g. C-reactive protein cytokines)XXX
Immunologic markers (e.g. immunoglobulines)
Cortisol
Vitamines and micronutrients
Gonadal axis hormones (e.g. testosterone, estradiol)
Metabolism (e.g. cholesterol, LDL, HDL, insulin, triglycerides)XXX
MetabolomicsXXXX
DNA methylation
Transcriptomics (mRNA, miRNA)
Genome-wide association study (GWAS)
Child biological samples ---------- Child age (years) at sampling ----------
At birth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Whole bloodXXXX
SerumX
Plasma
Buffy coat
UrineXXX
Hair
Teeth
Nails
Saliva
Purified DNA
Purified RNA
Red blood cells
Umbilical cord blood/tissue
Blood smear
Faeces/meconium
Exhaled breathe condensate
Sputum induction
Placenta
General information
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy <1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
EducationX
Income
Employment statusXX
Job titleX
Single parenthoodX
Home address
Work address
Maternal characteristics related to the index pregnancy/child
Age at birthX
EthnicityX
Country of birthX
Planned pregnancyX
Time to pregnancy
Fertility treatmentX
Prior spontaneous abortion (<22w)
Prior birthsX
Ultrasound measurements
Doppler measurements
Preeclampsia
Gestational diabetes
Gestational hypertension
Gestational durationX
Mode of deliveryX
Prenatal diagnostics
Medical termination of pregnancy
Maternal Exposures ---------- Timing of assessment ----------
Pre-pregnancy First trimester Second trimester Third trimester Post pregnancy
DietX
Dietary supplements
Active smokingXXXXX
Passive smoking
Alcohol consumptionXXXXX
Physical activityX
Substance use
Medicine intakeXXXX
Coffee drinking
Psychological distress (e.g. life-events, health behaviors, perceived stress)XXXX
Occupational exposures
Heavy lifts
Work hoursX
Air pollution
Access to green spaces
Built environment
Noise
Radiation, electromagnetic fields
Water contamination
Binge drinking
Pets
Farm animal exposure
Biomarkers of exposure
Mercury
Lead
Cadmium
Arsenic
Other metals
Polychlorinated biphenyl esters
Dicloro difenil tricloroetano
Hexachlorobenzene
Brominated flame retardants
Perflouralkyl compounds
Bisphenol A
Other bisphenols
Parabens
Benzophenones
Triclosan
Phthalates
Cotinine
Maternal health ---------- Timing of assessment ----------
Pre-pregnancy First trimester Second trimester Third trimester Post pregnancy
Anthropometry
WeightXX
HeightX
Waist circumferenceX
Clinical examinations
Blood pressureX
Carotida intima media thickness
Pulse wave velocity
DEXA scans
Bioimpedence
Mental and neurological development
Mental healthX
Cognitive function (e.g. intelligence quotient)
Respiratory health
AsthmaX
AllergyX
Musculo‐skeletal disease
Back pain
Neck pain
Arthritis
Other health outcomes
Cancer
Diabetes
Cardio‐vascular diseaseX
Family history of chronic disease
Infectious disease
Fever
Autoimmune disease
Urinary symptoms
Sexual problems
Sleep disturbance
Biomarkers of health
Nephrology (e.g. creatinine, albumin)
Thyroid hormones
Inflammatory markers (e.g. C-reactive protein cytokines)
Immunologic markers (e.g. immunoglobulines)
Cortisol
Vitamines and micronutrients
Gonadal axis hormones (e.g. testosterone, estradiol)
Metabolism (e.g. cholesterol, LDL, HDL, insulin, triglycerides)
Metabolomics
DNA methylation
Transcriptomics (mRNA, miRNA)
Genome-wide association study (GWAS)
Maternal biological samples ---------- Timing of sampling ----------
Pre-pregnancy First trimester Second trimester Third trimester Post pregnancy
Breast milk
Whole blood
Serum
Plasma
Buffy coat
Urine
Hair
Nails
Saliva
Purified DNA
Purified RNA
Red blood cells
Faeces
General information
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy <1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
EducationX
Income
Employment statusXX
Job titleX
Single parenthood
Home address
Work address
Paternal characteristics related to the index pregnancy/child
Fertility treatment
Age at child's birthX
EthnicityX
Country of birthX
Paternal exposures ---------- Timing of assessment ----------
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy Post pregnancy
Diet
Dietary supplements
Active smokingX
Passive smoking
Alcohol consumption
Physical activityX
Substance use
Medicine intake
Coffee drinking
Psychological distress (e.g. life-events, health behaviors, perceived stress)
Occupational exposures
Heavy lifts
Work hoursX
Air pollution
Access to green spaces
Built environment
Noise
Radiation, electromagnetic fields
Water contamination
Binge drinking
Pets
Farm animal exposure
Biomarkers of exposure
Mercury
Lead
Cadmium
Arsenic
Other metals
Polychlorinated biphenyl esters
Dicloro difenil tricloroetano
Hexachlorobenzene
Brominated flame retardants
Perflouralkyl compounds
Bisphenol A
Other bisphenols
Parabens
Benzophenones
Triclosan
Phthalates
Cotinine
Paternal health ---------- Timing of assessment ----------
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy Post pregnancy
Anthropometry
WeightX
HeightX
Waist circumferenceX
Clinical examinations
Blood pressureX
Carotida intima media thickness
Pulse wave velocity
DEXA scans
Bio impedence
Mental and neurological development
Mental health
Cognitive function (e.g. intelligence quotient)
Respiratory health
AsthmaX
AllergyX
Musculo‐skeletal disease
Back pain
Neck pain
Arthritis
Other health outcomes
Cancer
Diabetes
Cardio‐vascular diseaseX
Family history of chronic disease
Infectious disease
Fever
Autoimmune disease
Urinary symptoms
Sexual problems
Sleep disturbance
Biomarkers of health
Nephrology (e.g. creatinine, albumin)
Thyroid hormones
Inflammatory markers (e.g. C-reactive protein cytokines)
Immunologic markers (e.g. immunoglobulines)
Cortisol
Vitamines and micronutrients
Gonadal axis hormones (e.g. testosterone, estradiol)
Metabolism (e.g. cholesterol, LDL, HDL, insulin, triglycerides)
Metabolomics
DNA methylation
Transcriptomics (mRNA, miRNA)
Genome-wide association study (GWAS)
Paternal biological samples ---------- Timing of sampling ----------
Pre-pregnancy During pregnancy Post pregnancy
Semen
Whole blood
Serum
Plasma
Buffy coat
Urine
Hair
Nails
Saliva
Purified DNA
Purified RNA
Red blood cells
Faeces
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